如何选择正道?

时间:2014年01月08日信息来源:《经常得不到回答的问题》 点击: 【字体:

提问:在诸多灵性道路中,我们如何能知晓正道?

回答:让我们先来理解划分和评价不同的道路的标准。然后正道就会不证自明。

不同的宗教之道可被分为三个基本的类别:

1.排他主义:遵循排他主义道路的人断言,他们的道路是通向神的唯一道路。他们进一步断言,那些不接受他们的道路的人都注定要永远下地狱。有时宗教的排他主义会堕落为原教旨主义暴力。这会进一步使那些已经怀疑排他主义断言的智者反感。毕竟,如果神是无限的,为什么通向他的道路就是有限的呢?为什么一种特别的宗教要垄断通向他的道路呢?
2.多元主义:多元主义的概念是有许多道路通向神。现今,有时此概念被扩大到有多少人就有多少条通向神的道路。虽然此概念似乎要发扬宗教宽容,但它常常会导致灵性虚弱。一种宗教可被比作打算在知识和对神的爱这两方面训练学生的一所大学。排他主义的断言就像一个人自己的医学院是能产生医生的唯一学府这样的断言。这显然是狂热而荒谬的断言。然而,多元主义的断言像是更荒谬的断言:每个地方的每幢建筑都是一所医学院。
3.包容主义:包容主义解释说不存在许多道路,但基本上一条道路包括许多层面。这条道路上的不同层面与人们接近神的渐进提高的动机相符:恐惧,欲望,责任和爱。(请看前一篇文章为什么要接近神?

我们能通过观察一所医学院的毕业生的水准和其在校生接近该水准的进步情况来评估其水平。同样地,我们能通过观察一条宗教道路上的成熟修习者的水准和其萌芽修习者接近该水准的进步情况来评估其水平。
我们应当在一条灵性道路上的成熟修习者当中寻找什么水准呢?

1.系统而渊博的关于神的知识。此知识能回答关于生命的一切基本问题并且将神确立为存在的本质和目标。
2. 通过以下方面来表达的发自内心的对神的深深的爱:
a. 恒常地渴望崇拜神,唱诵他的圣名并品味其关于爱的信息。
b. 关怀众生——人类和非人类——将他们都视为神的宇宙大家庭的成员。
c. 脱离不信神的,物质主义的嗜好,像非法性生活和麻醉。
当我们在一条道路上的修习者身上看到这些特征时,我们就可以确信地推断那条道路是正道。

 (巴克提希丹塔达斯作品目录http://zq1025.blog.163.com/)

 

How to Choose the Right Path?

Question: Among the many spiritual paths, how can we know the right path?

Answer: Let’s first understand the criterion to categorize and evaluate various paths. Then the right path will become self-evident.

Various religious paths can be placed into three basic categories:

1.  Exclusivism: Followers of exclusivist paths claim that their way is the only exclusive way to God. They further claim that all those who don’t accept their path are destined to go to hell – forever. Religious exclusivism sometimes degenerates into fundamentalist violence. This further puts off intelligent people, who are already skeptical of the claim to exclusivism. After all, if God is unlimited, why should the path to him be limited? Why should one particular religion have monopoly on the path to him?

2.   Pluralism: Pluralism is the notion that there are many paths to God. Nowadays, this notion is sometimes expanded to say that there are as many paths to God as there are people. While this notion seems to promote religious tolerance, it often breeds spiritual impotence. A religion can be compared to a university meant to train students in knowledge and love of God. The claim to exclusivism is like the claim of that one’s own medical college is the only college that can produce doctors. This is obviously a fanatical and fallacious claim. However, the claim to pluralism is like the even more fallacious claim that every building everywhere is a medical college.

3.  Inclusivism: Inclusivism explains that there are not many paths, but basically one path that includes many levels. The levels on the path correspond to the progressively higher motives with which people approach God: fear, desire, duty and love. (Please see the previous article, “Why to approach God?”)

A medical college’s level can be assessed by observing the caliber of its graduates and the progress of its students toward that caliber. Similarly, the level of a religious path can be assessed by observing the caliber of its mature practitioners and the progress of its budding practitioners toward that caliber.

What caliber should we look for among mature practitioners of a spiritual path?

1.  Systematic, profound knowledge of God that answers all the fundamental questions of life and establishes God as the essence and goal of existence.

2. Deep inner love for God that expresses itself by:

a. Constant longing to worship God, chant his holy names, and relish his message of love.
b. Care and concern for all living beings – humans and nonhumans – seeing them all as family members in God’s universal family.
c. Detachment from godless, materialistic indulgences like illicit sex and intoxication.

When we see these characteristics in the practitioners of a path, we can confidently infer that path to be the right path. 

 

(作者:柴坦亚查冉达斯 编辑:daszq)
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